"Study suggests that American Indians with strong levels of cultural spiritual orientations have relatively lower rates of self-reported, attempted suicide. It also highlights the need to develop culturally relevant spirituality measures in American Indian populations that go beyond the indicators used for Judeo-Christian faiths. The Cultural Spiritual Orientations Scale represents a first step in that direction."
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Chandler, M. J. & Lalonde, C. E. (in press).
Cultural continuity as a moderator of suicide risk among Canada's First Nations .pdf file
Kirmayer, L. & Valaskakis, G. (Eds.).
The Mental Health of Canadian Aboriginal Peoples:
Transformations, Identity, and Community. University of British Columbia Press.
Lalonde, C. E. (2006).
Identity Formation and Cultural Resilience in Aboriginal Communities. .pdf file
In Flynn, R.J., Dudding, P., & Barber, J. (Eds.),
Promoting Resilience in Child Welfare. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press.
Lalonde, C.E. (2005).
Creating an Index of Healthy Aboriginal Communities.
Developing a Healthy Communities Index:
A collection of papers .pdf file, (pp. 21-27).
Report prepared for the Canadian Population Health Initiative,
Canadian Institute for Health Information.
Lalonde, C.E., Kinew, K., & Yates, R. (2005).
Place & Health in First Nations Communities. In Kachimaa Mawiin Maybe for Sure:
Finding a Place for Place in Health Research and Policy. .pdf file
Proceedings of Place and Health: Research to Policy Workshop. Canadian Population Health Initiative.
Lalonde, C. E., & Chandler, M. J., (2004).
Culture, Selves, and Time:
Theories of Personal Persistence in Native and non-Native Youth. .pdf file
In C. Lightfoot, C. Lalonde and M. Chandler (Eds.). Changing Conceptions of Psychological Life (pp. 207-229). Mahwah, NJ: Laurence Erlbaum & Associates.
Chandler, M. J., & Lalonde, C. E. (2004).
Transferring Whose Knowledge? Exchanging Whose Best Practices?:
On Knowing About Indigenous Knowledge and Aboriginal Suicide. .pdf file
To appear in D. Beavon and J. White (Eds.) Aboriginal Policy Research. London, ON: Althouse Press.
Chandler, M. J., Lalonde, C. E., & Teucher, U. (2004).
Culture, continuity, and the limits of narrativity:
A comparison of the self-narratives of Native and Non-Native youth. .pdf file
In C. Daiute and C. Lightfoot (Eds.), Narrative Analysis: Studying the Development of Individuals in Society. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Chandler, M. J., Lalonde, C. E., Sokol, B., & Hallett, D. (2003).
Personal Persistence, Identity Development, and Suicide:
A Study of Native and Non-Native North American Adolescents. .pdf file
Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development,
Vol. 68, No. 2,Serial No. 273.
Chandler, M.J. & Lalonde, C.E. (1998).
Cultural Continuity as a hedge against suicide in Canada's First Nations .pdf file
Transcultural Psychiatry, 35(2), 193-211.
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Preventing Youth Suicide
First Nation Communities
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SUICIDE AMONG ABORIGINAL PEOPLE:
ROYAL COMMISSION REPORT
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Centre for Suicide Prevention
Suicide Prevention Resources
Girls and Boys Town Hotline at 1-800-448-3000
Kids Help Line in Canada at 1-800-668-6868
January 9, 2003 - Young Aboriginal men in Northern British Columbia are reported to be among the highest number of those who take their own lives, according to the province's northern region coroner. Dave Coverdale says more people kill themselves each year than die in car crashes and says that it's time for communities to take action. Hanging, poison, and guns are the most common ways of committing suicide. Approximately 80 per cent of all gun deaths are suicides. Most of the victims are men, and many of them are young aboriginal men from northern B.C. Suicide is the second leading cause of death among young people aged 15 - 24. Overall, Aboriginal suicide rates are typically higher than the rate for the
The following text is from
Aboriginal Suicide Prevention
Aboriginal Peoples and the Criminal Justice System
Part III: SOCIAL, ECONOMICAL AND POLITICAL FACTORS
Canadian Criminal Justice Association
Suicide is a significant concern in many Aboriginal communities, is two to three times
more common among Aboriginal peoples and is also five to six times more prevalent
among Aboriginal youth than non-Aboriginal youth.
The following factors are often linked to suicide:
According to Aboriginal tradition, suicide was rare in Pre-colonialism times because it
was viewed as unacceptable. Those who did commit suicide were generally the sick or
elderly who felt they could no longer contribute to their community and their deaths were
perceived as acts of self-sacrifice. In First Nations communities today, suicide is more
common among the young and usually results from feelings of hopelessness and
continuous family disruptions and instability
family history of mental health problems
alcohol and/or drug abuse
physical and/or sexual abuse, and
extended periods of grief
Choosing Life: Special Report on Suicide Among Aboriginal People - - - Suicide rates, already five to six times higher among Aboriginal youth than their
non-Aboriginal peers, could increase dramatically over the next 10 to 15 years if
action isn't taken now. Changing demographics mean that the population bulge of
children, now under 15 years of age, will soon pass through the vulnerable years of
In this special report, the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples
calls for a 10-year Canada-wide campaign to reduce the prevalence of suicide and
self-injury. The report states that communities hold the keys to change
With One Voice
A musical drama-suicide prevention/crisis intervention program for schools, families, communities & conventions dealing w/ child abuse, drug abuse, depression, eating disorders, rape and other related issues that sometimes leads an individual to the dangerous considerations of suicide.
Yellow Ribbon Suicide Prevention Program
Program for the prevention of teen suicide
Youth Suicide Prevention Program
dedicated to reducing youth suicide and suicidal behaviors in Washington State. Promotes youth voice, youth-generated media messages, peer advocacy. Provides resources for youth and those who work with youth 15-24 yrs of age.
Australia's National Youth Suicide Prevention Strategy
A national government funded project to address the information and communication needs of those involved in youth suicide prevention.
Canadian Association For Suicide Prevention (CASP)
A Canadian nonprofit organization dedicated to the understanding and prevention of suicide.
The mission of LivingWorks Education is to create learning
experiences that help communities prevent suicide.
National Strategy for Suicide Prevention
The CMHS National Stategy for Suicide Prevention website provides information for mental health professionals, health care providers, community coalitions, policymakers, survivors, and advocates.
SA\VE - Suicide Awareness \ Voices of Education
The mission of SA\VE is to educate about suicide prevention
and to speak for suicide survivors.
Suicide Information & Education Centre (SIEC)
A special library and resource centre providing information on suicide and suicidal behaviour.
Suicide Prevention Advocacy Network
Suicide Prevention Advocacy Network advocates a proven, effective suicide prevention program.
American Foundation for Suicide Prevention
The American Foundation for Suicide Prevention is dedicated to advancing our knowledge of suicide and our ability to prevent it.
American Association of Suicidology
A nonprofit organization dedicated to the understanding and prevention of suicide.
The NIMH Suicide Research Consortium
FAQ's, statistics, abstracts, and articles on suicide in the United States.
Risk factors for suicide:
Biopsychosocial risk factors:
- Mental disorders,
particularly mood disorders, schizophrenia, anxiety disorders and certain personality disorders
- Alcohol and other substance use disorders
- Impulsive and/or aggressive tendencies
- History of trauma or abuse
- Some major physical illnesses
- Previous suicide attempt
- Family history of suicide
Environmental risk factors:
- Job or financial loss
- Relationship or social loss
- Easy access to lethal means
- Local clusters of suicide that have a contagious influence
Sociocultural risk factors:
- Lack of social support and sense of isolation
- Stigma associated with help-seeking behavior
- Barriers to accessing health care, especially mental health and substance abuse treatment
- Certain cultural and religious beliefs (for instance, the belief that suicide is a noble resolution of a personal dilemma)
- Exposure to and influence of others who have died by suicide, including exposure through the media
Protective factors for suicide:
- Effective clinical care for mental, physical, and substance use disorders
- Easy access to a variety of clinical interventions and support for seeking help
- Restricted access to highly lethal means of suicide
- Strong connections to family and community support
- Support through ongoing medical and mental health care relationships
- Skills in problem solving, conflict resolution, and nonviolent handling of disputes
- Cultural and religious beliefs that discourage suicide and support self-preservation
For more information or to seek help for yourself or a friend with suicidal tendencies
call 1-800-273-TALK, or go to Suicide Prevention Lifeline
South Dakota Department of Health
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